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Corneal Diseases

About Corneal Diseases

About Corneal Diseases

What Is The Cornea?

The cornea is the inclined transparent layer, which is located at the front of the eye. It has the task of focusing the light and protecting the eye from external factors and plays a major role in the function of vision.

What are the cornea examination methods?

A person who is not an ophthalmologist can evaluate corneal transparency, surface brightness, corneal injuries, and corneal sensitivity with the help of a cotton swab with local light. Ophthalmologists use some devices to evaluate corneal morphology and function:

  • Biomicroscopy: It is useful for binocular examination of the cornea and other structures of the anterior segment. Light beams of different thicknesses are sent from different angles, allowing the slit-lamp to be magnified and the cornea can be examined. It is the most commonly used examination method.
  • Keratometry: It is the measurement of the refractive power of the cornea. It is used before contact lens and intraocular lens implantation.
  • Topography: It is used in the topographic analysis of the anterior surface of the cornea.
  • Pachymetry: It is the measurement of corneal thickness.
  • Specular microscopy: It shows the endothelial cell number and structure.
  • Estesiometry: It is useful for the evaluation of corneal sensitivity.
  • Examination of the cornea by staining: Defects on the corneal surface can be seen with a "fluorescein and rose bengal" solution.


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